Rare earths are essential components for a growing array of modern technological applications and devices for which there are virtually no substitutes.

The table below provides a summary of REE based technologies, their applications and the main REE required for production.

Rare Earth TechnologyApplication(s)REE required
  • Oil production
  • Gasoline and hybrids, diesel fuel additive
  • Fluid cracking
  • Ethane polymerisation
La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Lu, Y, Sm
Rare Earth permanent magnets and ceramic magnets
  • Wind and hydro power generation
  • Cordless power tools
  • Generators
  • Hybrids, plug-in and electric vehicles
  • Electric assist motors
  • Medical imaging
  • Computer disc drives
  • Handheld wireless devices
Nd, Pr, Dy, Tb, Sm, Tm
  • LCD TVs and monitors
  • Plasma TVs and displays
  • Energy efficient fluorescent lights & LEDs
Y, Eu, Tb, Gd, Ce, La, Dy, Pr, Sc
Energy storage
  • NiMH batteries
La, Ce, Pr, Nd
Glass additives
  • Fiber optics
  • Optical glass for digital camera
Ce, La, Nd, Er, Gd, Yb
Polishing powders
  • LCD and Plasma TVs and monitors
  • Silicon wafers and chips
Ce, La, Pr
  • Lasers
  • Superconductors
  • Nuclear applications
  • Fertilizers
  • High tech alloys
  • Yb, Y, Dy, Tb, Eu, Sm, Nd
  • Gd
  • Ce, Er
  • various REE
  • Yb, Lu, Er, Tb, Gd, Eu, Sm, Nd, Pr, Ho, Sc

Industry Products
One of the most commonly used intermediate rare earths product is “mischmetal”, an alloy containing some 50% cerium (Ce), 25% lanthanum (La), 15% neodymium (Nd) plus iron, calcium, and other rare earth elements. Mischmetal is commercially available in bar, rod, or powder form.

Key Industrial Consumers and Products:

  • Automobile and petroleum industry
  • Glass industry, optics, high-quality lenses, crystal production, luminous fiber optics
  • High-performance electronics, high-tech weapons, satellite technology and telecommunications
  • Metallurgy, ceramics industry, and laser industry
  • Water treatment, alternative energies, marine biology
  • Paint and lacquer production, laboratories, drying technology, fluxing agents
  • Manufacture of magnets, batteries, spare parts industries
  • Shieldings against radioactivity